El Parlamento Obrero (Karl Marx)

Entre 1853 y 1854 más de 14.000 obreros  tejedores en Preston (Inglaterra) iniciaron una huelga. La huelga se mantuvo por varios meses debido a la solidaridad económica de varios sindicatos y organizaciones que colaboraron, ante esta situación, varios dirigentes sindicales pensaron que era necesario crear una organización de los trabajadores que recaudará fondos para financiar las futuras huelgas, mítines y plantones de los trabajadores. Con la anterior intención, fue encomendado a Marx elaborar los estatutos para esta nueva organización que sería el bastión para luchar contra los industriales en Inglaterra.

Autor: Karl Marx. Publicado originalmente en New York Daily Tribune, núm. 4039, 29 de marzo de 1854. Escrito en Londres, viernes, 10 de marzo de 1854.

Gran Bretaña es el país en que hasta ahora han alcanzado su máximo grado de desarrollo el despotismo del capital y la esclavitud obrera. En  ninguna otra parte de la tierra se han barrido tan a fondo como aquí los grupos intermedios entre el millonario que manda sobre ejércitos industriales enteros y el esclavo asalariado que sólo vive de la mano a la boca. Aquí ya no existen, como en los países del continente, las grandes clases de los campesinos y los artesanos que dependen casi tanto de su propiedad como de su trabajo. En Gran Bretaña se ha establecido un divorcio total de la propiedad y el trabajo. De ahí que en ningún otro país presente la guerra entre las dos clases que forman la sociedad moderna tan gigantescas proporciones y adopte rasgos tan acusados ya tan descarados.

Precisamente por ello nadie es tampoco tan competente como la clase obrera de Gran Bretaña para ser la dirigente del gran movimiento que dará como resultado final la total emancipación del trabajo. Lo es por la clara conciencia de su situación, por su formidable superioridad numérica, por su experiencia, por las asoladoras luchas del pasado y por su fuerza moral en el presente.

La prensa diaria londinense opone a la actividad del Parlamento Obrero la “política de la mudez”; trata de ahogarla en una “conspiración del silencio”. Después de haber cansado al público durante varios meses con interminables artículos sobre el tema, discutiendo si se llegaría o no a la convocatoria de este parlamento, de pronto se abstiene de mencionar para nada el hecho de que el parlamento ha sido realmente convocado y ha iniciado ya sus labores. Esta sabiduría del avestruz, que se imagina haber salido del peligro haciendo como si no se enterara, ya no sirve de nada, hoy. La prensa no tendrá más remedio que acusar noticia del parlamento y los futuros historiadores deberán informar, a pesar de esta hipócrita indiferencia, que en 1854 había en Inglaterra dos parlamentos, un parlamento en Londres y otro en Manchester, un parlamento de los ricos y otro de los pobres, pero que los verdaderos hombres solamente se sentaban en el parlamento obrero, y no en el parlamento de los señores. He aquí ahora el informe del Comité a quien se encomendó de trazar el proyecto de un programa de acción para el Parlamento Obrero:

“Vuestro Comité considera que es deber de este Parlamento actuar eficazmente en beneficio de las obreros contra los despidos y bloqueos que actualmente se declaran y adoptar medidas que impidan ambas cosas en el futuro; asegurar a la clase obrera un trato justo durante el trabajo; alejar de las fábrica a las mujeres y los niños; asegurar posibilidades de instrucción e impedir las rebajas de salarios y la encubierta reducción de éstos. En la creencia, además, que es deber suyo luchar por asegurar a los trabajadores una participación justa en el rendimiento de su trabajo y, sobre todo, crear las premisas para que lleguen a ser los dueños de su propio trabajo, con el fin de conseguir la total emancipación de la esclavitud asalariada. Convencidos de que el paso decisivo para ello es la consecución de los recursos pecuniarios necesarios para actuar, somete a vuestra deliberación lo siguiente:

  1. La implantación de un sistema destinado a reunir el dinero necesario para un fondo nacional del trabajo;
  2. Un plan para asegurar los fondos así conseguidos;
  3. Su empleo y la garantía de los derechos de la clase trabajadora;
  4. La fundamentación del movimiento de masas.

 

I. La fundación de un fondo nacional del trabajo:

 a) Una cuota semanal del salario proporcional al nivel del precio del trabajo, como sigue:

hasta 4 chelines[1] por semana…               1/2 penique.

hasta 8 chelines por semana…                    ¾          “

hasta 12 chelines por semana…                   1           “

hasta 15 chelines por semana …                  1 1/2   “

hasta 20 chelines por semana…                   2          “

hasta 30 chelines por semana…                   3          “

hasta 40 chelines por semana…                   4          “

b) Los encargados de las distintas organizaciones obreras que actúen de acuerdo con el movimiento de masas, entregarán a su Comité dirigente las cuotas percibidas.

 

II. Garantía del fondo

 a) Los encargados de las organizaciones locales entregarán semanalmente a la dirección del movimiento, como más abajo se especifica, todo el dinero percibido para el movimiento de masas. Los encargados reglamentariamente de recibir el dinero entregarán recibos por las cantidades percibidas.

b) Las personas dirigentes depositarán en un banco, en cuenta a nombre común, todo el dinero ingresado para el movimiento de masas (teniendo derecho a retener en su poder una suma que no exceda de 50 libras esterlinas). Sólo podrán retirase del banco estas sumas o una parte de ellas mediante exhibición del libro de actas del mencionado Comité dirigente, en que se contenga el correspondiente mandato para retirar fondos, firmado por una mayoría aun no fijada de miembros del Comité.

c) El dinero así retirado (cuando exceda de 5 libras esterlinas) deberá consistir en papel-dinero. Los números de estos billetes de banco deberán registrarse en un libro que pueda ser revisado y publicarse en los periódicos; la cuantía de los billetes de banco así recibidos deberá ser distribuida, confiándose cada parte a un miembro individual del Comité dirigente. Si se retiran grandes sumas, se depositarán por partes iguales entre cada uno de los miembros.

d) Cada miembro a quien se confíe de este modo una parte del dinero citado deberá extender un certificado de deuda sobre esta suma parcial del dinero retirado, siempre y cuando que el dinero se divida en partes iguales, con arreglo al número de miembros del Comité. Si un miembro se negara a emplear la parte de los billetes que se halla en su poder para los fines con que se ha retirado el dinero, el documento de que se dispone a cambio de ello entrará inmediatamente en vigor y solamente se anulará cuando rescate sus billetes de banco mencionados. Los certificados de deuda extendidos deberán depositarse en un armario de caja o en una caja fuerte bajo la custodia de una persona segura e imparcial (ningún miembro del Comité dirigente, quien sólo permitirá sacar de allí un documento cuando se halle presente todo el Comité.)

e) El dinero retirado para efectuar pagos o hacer compras sólo deberá ser desembolsado por las personas dirigentes en presencia de todos los miembros del Comité.

III. Empleo de los fondos

a) El fondo creado deberá emplearse como sigue: para sostener a todas las ciudades y todos los lugares en que se efectúe una huelga y para cubrir todas las deudas que se hayan producido en las huelgas y los bloqueos pasados y presentes. La misma ayuda deberán recibir todas las ciudades, en proporción al número de sus obreros sin trabajo. Con arreglo al mismo principio según el cual, a bordo de un barco en el que reine escasez, cada cual tiene el derecho a la misma parte de las provisiones, se concederá a cada uno igual ayuda, lo mismo si se trata de un trabajador altamente pagado que del obrero peor retribuido. A pesar de que todos los interesados en un movimiento de huelga o en un bloqueo de la fábrica deban ser apoyados, en lo sucesivo no se prestará ayuda a ningún grupo que no reconozca y apoye al movimiento de masas.

b) Se destinará una parte a la regulación del precio del trabajo. Con este fin y para todas las obras que se hallen en contacto con el movimiento de masas, deberá publicarse un informe mensual acerca de los precios de las materias primas y acerca del precio del trabajo, el precio de venta de los productos elaborados y de los otros costos de producción. A base de estos testimonios, deberá el Comité dirigente publicar un informe sobre las ganancias de los empresarios, hallándose en libertad de oponer a las declaraciones de aquéllos otros informes acerca de cualesquiera costos especiales o adicionales del empresario. A base de estos cálculos, deberá regularse el precio del trabajo y, coincidiendo con ello, fijarse la tarifa de los salarios. Y de modo análogo se procederá también en lo tocante a los intereses agrícolas del campo.

c) Si, de este modo, el trabajador tiene el derecho indiscutible a participar de las ganancias del empresario, se hallará asistido en medida todavía mayor del derecho a ser ducho de su trabajo; para ello y para la regulación eficaz de los salarios — para lo que deberá sustraerse al empresario el poder de apropiarse el trabajo excedente — el fondo del movimiento de masas podrá emplearse también para comprar tierras. Las tierras se comprarán a nombres de personas que no sean miembros del Comité. Se distribuirán en granjas de diferente magnitud, según la cualidad de la tierra y la finalidad de su empleo bien en arriendos personales o bien en grandes empresas cooperativas. Dichas tierras serán propiedad del movimiento de masas, que no podrá nunca venderlas. La tierra se arrendará en plazos cortos y por una renta adecuada y moderada. El contrato de arriendo contendrá la cláusula de que cual arrendatario que adeude su renta perderá el derecho de arriendo. Otra clausula obligará al arrendatario a pagar la renta a las personas determinadas por el documento de trasmisión de que se hablará más abajo. Las personas a nombre de las cuales se vendan las tierras extenderán un documento de trasmisión por virtud del cual el arrendatario no les pagará la renta a ellas, sino a las personas que pertenezcan, para este efecto, al Comité dirigente del movimiento de masas. Las personas que pertenezcan para estos fines a la dirección, deberán levantar un documento en que se obligue al pago de una multa de 5 000 libras esterlinas a cada una de dos personas que no sean compradoras de ninguna tierra; esta multa deberá hacerse efectiva cuando estas personas abandonen su cargo y no extienda acerca de ello ningún documento de trasmisión del arriendo citado a quienes les sucedan en el cargo; y éstos a su vez, quedarán sujetos a las mismas condiciones.

d) Para que se asegure mejor el derecho de los trabajadores a ser dueños de su propio trabajo y garantizar mejor la liberación del mercado de trabajo excesivo, vuestro Comité recomienda, además, un empleo del fondo disponible para la instalación de fábricas talleres y tiendas cooperativas, propiedad del movimiento de masas. Quienes trabajan en ellas percibirán un salario con arreglo a la tarifa más arriba establecida para el precio del trabajo y la mitad de la ganancia neta de los productos vendidos; la otra mitad de la ganancia deberá destinarse a los ingresos del movimiento de masas. El dirigente de cada empresa o cooperativa será elegido por los obreros que trabajen en ella y deberá ser confirmado por el Comité dirigente. Dicho administrador de la empresa cooperativa de que se trate regulará las compras y ventas correspondientes y entregará mensualmente al Comité dirigente un informe sobre las compras, ventas, pagos y las correspondientes pérdidas o ganancias. Si hubiese razones para demandar por las diferencias existentes entre los obreros y el administrador, los encargados tendrán derecho a expulsar de su cargo al administrador y a designar a otro, por una mayoría mínima de las tres cuartas partes de sus votos. La mitad de la ganancia neta de cada empresa cooperativa deberá ser remitida por el administrador al Comité dirigente. Para la propiedad adquirida por el movimiento de masas para fines cooperativos, regirán las mismas medidas de garantía que para las tierras.

Tras largo debate, el Parlamento Obrero, en su sesión del miércoles, votó el informe del Comité hasta la parte II. El Comité a quien se encargó la ejecución del proyecto de este programa de acción para el movimiento de masas está formado por los señores Ernest Jones, James Finlen, James Williams, Abraham Robinson y James Bligh.

[1] El chelín equivalía a 12 peniques

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